Regional landscape park «Kinburn sand-spit» is situated on the territory of the Pokrovka council of Ochakiv district in Mykolayiv Oblast and covers the western part of the Kinburn Peninsula (excluding the area of the Black Sea Biosphere Reserve “Volyzhyn forest”) and adjacent waters of the Dnieper-Bug Liman, the Black Sea and the Yagorlyk Bay water area.
Kinburn Sand Spit is a natural territorial complex of ancient river sandy plains and coastal landscapes unique for Europe. It is a habitat of many species of plants, fungi, animals, including those that do not occur anywhere else in the world. Today Kinburn environmental conditions are favorable for resorts, mud cure, fishing, mushroom picking, as well as for scientific and sports tourism. Kinburn ecosystem is very vulnerable and, in view of anthropogenic pressure increase may become uninhabitable not only for wild flora and fauna, but also for the local population.
4. Kinburn arrow. Kinburn Arrow is situated in the western part of the Kinburn pepinsula in front of Ochakov. At its narrowest point one foot can stay in the sea, and another in the liman. This is an important link in the marine coastal ecocorridor, the place of concentration of mass nesting of birds during seasonal migrations. During the siege of Ochakov in 1788 Kinburn Fortress continued to block the Turkish fortress from sea side. Almost all buildings of the fortress were destroyed. In terms of the Peace Agreement in Paris they were dismantled in 1857. Today, only small lakes and swamps on the place of ditches are the evident traces of a glorious fortress.
5.Bienkovi flood-plains. Bienkovi flood-plains are situated on the coast of the Dnieper-Bug Liman to the east from Pokrovskoe birth. It is the remains of ancient river floods with numerous water bodies and flooded parts with the area of 600 ha.
6.Spawing lakes. The grassy marshes dominate in the western part of the massiv and are represented particularly pure and very thick tangles of reed (Phragmites australis). Miscellaneous herbs are met only on the margins of such associations and provide high purifying ability of the water body. The lakes play the main role in protection of waterfowls. The area supports the life and security of big accumulations of white pelican (500 – 2500 examples) and one of the most on the south of Ukraine multispecies colony of herons (about 600 pairs), who use this territory as feeding ground.
7.Volyzhyn forest. The small oak-birch, sedge and alder forests scattered throughout sandy spaces of the Peninsula are the peculiar feature of the natural environment of the Kinburn Sand-spit. It is the remains of the famous Hileus, the country of forests, according to ancient Greek historian Herodotus, which existed here during the V century BC.
8. Sand dunes. The life of one of the most famous Greeks – Achilles – is related to Hileus. The sand-spits (for example, Tendra) of the northern part of the Black Sea served as racetracks for Achilles. That is why they were called “Achillodroms” that means Achilles run from Greek. According to one version the hero run down the girl Iphigenia, on the other he held competitions among his soldiers. Dunes are sandy hills blown by the wind. Huge amounts of sand have been being accumulated in the Dnieper mouth since last glaciation and continue to pile up now. Dunes can be drifted up to half meter high during a day. Sand is often carried at considerable distance from the marine coast. When the wind is strong the sand fills everything. The only thing that effectively withstands the sand is vegetation.
9. Wolf den. Wolf’s den is a place of wolf’s breeding. Usually, it is situated in the same area among the cozy forest areas and near water bodies that are rarely visited by people. There should be enough food to feed mother of the brood. On the Kinburn Spit the wolves appeared in the late 80s of past century. Today, a pack of these predators has about ten individuals.
10. Alder forest. Tree layer is formed by thickets of black alder (Alnus glutinosa), which reaches 18 m in height and 50 cm in diameter. Shrub layer is represented by grey willows (Salix cinerea) and almond willows (Salix triandra). These island forests, unlike artificial ones, are of particular importance for biodiversity of conservation area. Kovalivka saga is a place of concentration of birds and bats during migration, and blackberry bushes grow on “pedestals”.
14. Mud lake. The water in the lagoon is very well warmed up, that is why microorganisms rapidly develop, and when they wither away, they turn into different groups of organic compounds.
15. Yahorlyk bay. Yahorlyk Bay is located between Kinburn Spit and Peninsula Yahorlyk Kut. It is partially separated with Pokrovska Sand spit, Kruhlyi and Dovhyi Islands from the sea. Bay area is 1 to 4 m deep and freezes in cold winters only.
16. Islands Kruhlyi and Dovhyi. These islands in the Yahorlyk Bay are a key nesting site of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) on the Black Sea. It is well known around the world for its extremely light and warm feathers, with which it lines the nest and protects themselves and offspring from the cold. Yet it remains unclear what made the representative of arctic fauna change the usual route and settle on territories adjacent to Kinburn Spit.
Perhaps they were attracted by great number of mussels, on which they mainly feed. In some years the colony of the eider included more than 600 pairs, and the total number of birds reached seven thousand individuals. Today, it has somewhat decreased.
18. “Osetinskoe” tract. In 1960s-1980s there was one of the most productive fishing camps on Kinburn, which specialized in sturgeon and caviar. The basis of this industry accounted for such species as the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and sevruga (Acipenser stellatus). Often the beluga (Huso huso) was caught in the seine – the biggest fish of the Black Sea (can weigh up to a ton). Recently, instead of the fishing camp, one of the boundaries of the Regional Landscape Park “Kinburn Spit” was set. It is blocking access to a young area of sand and shelly sediments, which intensively built up the sea towards the island Dovgyi.
20. Water area of the black sea. Shallow areas of the northwest sea shelf have always been quite productive. The sturgeon, scomber, bluefish, mackerel, phyllophora (Phyllophora nervosa) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) used to be actively caught. The crab, pipefish, beluga, Russian sturgeon, sevruga and all three species of dolphins are listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine.