Ancient Greeks in Kolkhida
The oldest myth of Argonauts is ahead of the Trojan Legend (II Millennium Part I). Athamas the Minyan, a founder of Halos in Thessaly.but also king of the city of Orchomenus in Boeotia (a region of southeastern Greece), took as his first wife the cloud goddess Nephele, by whom he had two children, the boy Phrixus and the girl Helle. Later he became enamored of and married Ino, bringing drought upon his land when Nephele removed herself. Ino was jealous of her stepchildren and plotted their deaths: in some versions, she persuaded Athamas that sacrificing Phrixus was the only way to end the drought.
Nephele, or her spirit, appeared to the children with a winged ram whose fleece was of gold. On the ram the children escaped over the sea, but Helle fell off and drowned in the strait now named after her, the Hellespont. The ram spoke to Phrixus, giving him heart, and took Phrixus, whose name means “curly”—as ram`s fleece—safely on to Colchis (modern-day Georgia), on the easternmost shore of the Euxine (Black) Sea. Phrixus then sacrificed the ram to Poseidon and settled in the house of Aeetes, son of Helios the sun-Titan, and lived to a ripe old age.
During the reign of the Roman Emperor Hadrian (2nd c CE) there used to be a Roman military camp on the territory of present Batumi.
The oldest reference to the fortress is by Pliny the Elder in the Natural History (1st century AD). By antique tradition foundation of Apsaros associated with the expedition of the Argonauts. There is also a reference to the ancient name of the site in Appian’s Mithridatic Wars (2nd century AD). In the 2nd century AD it was a well-fortified Roman city within Colchis. The town was also known for its theatre and hippodrome.
The lower, upper and seaside parks are located on the main route of the garden. Currently, the garden consists of nine floristic sectors, those of Caucasian humid subtropics, East Asia, New Zealand, South America, the Himalayas, Mexico, Australia, and of the Mediterranean. The garden collection comprises 2.037 taxonomic units of ligneous plants, including 104 of Caucasian origin. The rests are the representatives of the other phytogeographic flora.
|Day 1||Meeting the group in Batumi, Adjara region. Transfer and accommodation, evening at leisure.|
|Day 2||Sightseeing and cultural excursion in Batumi (Bathus): Gonio Fortress, museum of History and Architecture, departure for Poti (Phazis); yacht trip on the river Rioni and lake Paliastomi. Overnight in Poti.|
|Day 3||Departure for Svaneti region (“rivers and springs in Svaneti carry gold sand, which people catch in sheep skins” – Strabo wrote in I c.). Overnight in administrative centre of Svaneti, Mestia.|
|Day 4||Svaneti Museum of History and Ethnography. Leisure evening.|
|Day 5||Drive to Kutaisi. Cultural excursion to the city of Kutaisi, the capital of ancient Kolkhida: historic and architectural complex of Gelati, Bagrati Cathedral, and the ruins of an ancient city of Vani. Night in Kutaisi.|
|Day 6||En route to Tbilisi: cultural excursion to Uplistsikhe; evening at leisure in Tbilisi.|
|Day 7||City of Mtskheta: Svetitskhoveli Cathedral; sightseeing in the capital: Narikala fortress, Sioni Cathedral, State Museum of History of Georgia.|
|Day 8||Transfer to airport and departure.|
Phasis was an ancient and early medieval city on the eastern Black Sea coast, founded in the 7th or 6th century BC as a colony of the Milesian Greeks at the mouth of the eponymous river in Colchis, near the modern-day port city of Poti.
According to the myths, the Argonauts travelled in Colchis on the river Phasis.
Mestia is a highland townlet in northwest Georgia, at an elevation of 1,500 metres (4,921 feet) in the Caucasus Mountains. Ancient Greek geographer Strabo (I century BC) wrote – the real reason for the trip was Colchi’s treasure of gold, iron and silver, which king Ayet received from Svaneti. By Strabo the rivers in Svaneti bear gold that is gathered by means of perforated wash-tubs and sheep skins.
Churches and forts – included in a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
5.Svaneti Museum of History and Ethnography. Svaneti Museum of History and Ethnography was established in 1936.Eexhibition of archaeological discoveries made in Svaneti date back to the 3rd century BC, and the museum’s collection contains many examples of ceramics, jewelry, cult or religious objects and armaments. In the halls of permanent exhibitions. encompassing manuscripts from the 9th-18th centuries, unique icons, archaeological and ethnographic items.
Literally, “the lord’s fortress” is an ancient rock-hewn town in eastern Georgia, some 10 kilometers east of the town of Gori, Shida Kartli.
Built on a high rocky left bank of the Mtkvari River, it contains various structures dating from the Early Iron Age to the Late Middle Ages, and is notable for the unique combination of various styles of rock-cut cultures from Anatolia and Iran, as well as the co-existence of pagan and Christian architecture.
In 2014 according to the Patriarch’s blessing and consecration, Mtskheta was given the status of a holy city. Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Mtskheta is amongst the most significant monument of Georgian Christian architecture. The current cathedral was built in the 11th century by the Georgian architect Arsukisdze. Svetitskhoveli, known as the burial site of Christ’s mantle, has long been the principal Georgian church and remains one of the most venerated places of worship to this day. It presently functions as the seat of the archbishop of Mtskheta and Tbilisi, who is at the same time Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia. It is the second largest church building in the country, after the recently consecrated Tbilisi Holy Trinity Cathedral, and is listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Mongols renamed it “Narin Qala” (i.e., “Little Fortress”). Most of extant fortifications date from the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1827, parts of the fortress were damaged by an earthquake and demolished.
2.Sioni Cathedral of the Dormition is a Georgian Orthodox cathedral in Tbilisi. It was initially built in the 6th and 7th centuries. Since then, it has been destroyed by foreign invaders and reconstructed several times. The current church is based on a 13th-century version with some changes from the 17th to 19th centuries. The Sioni Cathedral was the main Georgian Orthodox Cathedral and the seat of Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia until the Holy Trinity Cathedral was consecrated in 2004.